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Diagnosis

Symptoms typical of PML are the result of demyelination – often in multiple areas of the brain – caused by the viral infection. Onset is subacute spanning weeks to months. Symptoms vary and increase in severity as disease progresses. PML frequently presents as hemiparesis, ataxia, cognitive or behavioral changes, or visual disturbances.1, 2

 

It is important to note that diagnostic criteria should be considered in the context of primary indications and therapeutic areas.

 

Neither fever nor optic nerve involvement is a feature of PML, and spinal cord disease is rarely associated with it.3

 

It is important to note that diagnostic criteria should be considered in the context of primary indications and therapeutic areas for which the immunomodulatory agents are being used.


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1 Progressive multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000674.htm. Updated February 16, 2012. Accessed September 2012.

2 NINDS Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/pml/pml.htm. Updated September 27, 2011. Accessed September 2012.

3 Bruce Brew, Nicholas Davies, et. al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other forms of JC virus disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Dec;6(12):671.

4 Brew, 667.